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Guri in History

Guri in History

GURI HISTORY

Guri in History

From the Samhan period to the Japanese colonial period to Korea!
Let me tell you the history of Guri.

  • Samhan : The Three Han States

    Samhan was formed around third century BCE. Samhan is the collective name of Mahan, Jinhan and Byeonhan, and the present-day Guri region is part of Mahan. Mahan covers Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheong-do, and Jeolla-do. Mahan consisted of 54 minor statelets. A theory assumes that Gori, one of the statelets, was located in Yangju and Pungyang. There are several theories regarding its location, but they are not verified.

  • Three Kingdoms of Korea and Unified Silla

    A record about the first year (286) of King Chaekgye of Baekje in Samguk Sagi (History of the Three Kingdoms) says, “The king was concerned about Goguryeo’s invasion, so he ordered to repair Adanseong Fortress.” Based on this, it can be assumed that the lower reaches of Hangang River were the territory of Baekje. In addition, there is a record of the battle between Baekje and Goguryeo in Pyeongyangseong Fortress and Paeha, which is the present-day Yeseonggang River, in 371, which shows that the territory around Hangang River, including Guri, was part of Baekje at least until 371. In 396 (6th year of Gwanggaeto the Great), King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo carried out a large-scale conquest of Baekje and occupied 58 fortresses and 700 villages of Baekje. The names of the fortresses occupied by Goguryeo at that time were carved on the Monument of King Gwanggaeto the Great. Andanseong Fortress is one of them. Most agree that Adanseong Fortress is located in present-day Achasan Mountain. As Goguryeo forces went to Hanseong (present-day Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do), the capital of Baekje at that time, the present-day Guri and territory around Hangang River were situated at the southern border of Goguryeo.

    In September 475 (63rd year of King Jangsu), King Jangsu of Goguryeo attacked Baekje again with his 30,000 soldiers. At this point of time, King Jangsu captured Hanseong, the capital of Baekje, and killed King Gaero in Achasan Mountain. He kept advancing south and conquered the wide land of the southern part of Hangang River. Guri became part of Goruino-hyeon (present-day Jinjeop and Jingeon in Namyangju), Bukhansan-gun (present-day Seoul) at that time. After that, the lower reaches of Hangang River were part of Goguryeo’s territory for a while. However, the region became the Baekje’s territory again as the allied forces of Silla and Baekje attacked and occupied the region in 551 (29th year of King Seong). Two years later, in 553 (14th year of King Jinheung), Silla attacked the lower reaches of Hangang River and occupied the region. In 757 (16th year of King Gyeongdeok), Silla set up Hanyang-gun in the Bukhansan-gun region (present-day Seoul) and changed the name of Jinjeop and Jingeon region of Namyangju from Goruino-hyeon to Hwangyang. Hwangyang was part of Hanyang-gun and present-day Guri seems to be located in this area.

  • Later Three Kingdoms

    The name “Yangju” first appeared in 898.

  • Goryeo Dynasty

    It is assumed that the present-day Guri region would be under the jurisdiction of Yangju or Namgyeong during the Goryeo period. The present-day Seoul region, which had been Hanyang-gun in Unified Silla, was renamed Yangju during the early Goryeo period. In 983 (2nd year of King Seongjong), the region became Yangju-mok when the 12 mok administrative district system was established. In 995 (14th year of King Seongjong), the administrative district system was reorganized on the basis of 10 provinces and 12 commanders. At this point of time, Yangju belonged to Gwannae-do (Hwanghae-do region of Gyeonggi-do). The Goryeo government established the commander-in-chief system, designating Yangju as the headquarters of the left commander-in-chief and Haeju as the right. In 1012 (3rd year of King Hyeonjeong), the two corps and 12 commanders systems were abolished and anmusa (defense-police officers) was installed. However, in 1018 (9th year of King Hyeonjong), Yangju was demoted it to jijusa (greater prefecture administrator) again. In 1067 (21st year of King Munjong), it was promoted to Namgyeong yusugwan, but was eventually demoted. The region was promoted to Namgyeong again during the reign of King Sukjong. At this time, Guri was under the direct control of Namgyeong. In 1308 (34th year of King Chungyeol), Namgyeong was downgraded to Hanyang-bu. More details of the history of present-day Guri are still unknown.

  • Joseon Dynasty
    • 1394 (3rd year of King Taejo) As the capital was installed in Hanyang-bu, present-day Seoul, the area was renamed Hanseong-bu. The Yangju Administrative Office was relocated to Daedong-ri (assumed to be present-day Gwangjang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul), the southern part of Achasan Mountain. The region was downgraded to Jiyangjusa in 1394 and then promoted again to Yangju-bu in 1395 (4th year of King Taejo).
    • 1397 (6th year of King Taejo) In 1397 (6th year of King Taejo), the Yangju Administrative Office was moved to Gojunae (present-day Goeup-dong, Yangju-si).
    • 1410 (10th year of King Taejong) In 1410 (10th year of King Taejong), the region was promoted to Yangju-mok again. In 1413 (13th year of King Taejong) The region was downgraded to Yangju-dohobu.
    • 1466 (12th year of King Sejo) In 1466 (12th year of King Sejo), the region was promoted to Yangju-mok again. In 1504 (10th year of King Yeonsangun), Yangju-mok was abolished and the region became the king’s hunting ground.
    • 1506 (1st year of King Jungjong) In 1506 (1st year of King Jungjong), it was restored as Yangju-mok again and the administrative office was relocated to the southern part of Bulgoksan Mountain (present-day Yuyang-dong, Yangju-si). Since then, the government office of Yangju was situated in Yuyang-dong. According to Shinjeung dongguk yeoji seungnam, it was approximately 16 to 24 kilometers away from Guri.
    • 1530 (25th year of King Jungjong) The name “Guji” first appeared as “Guji-myeon, Yangju-mok” in Shinjeung dongguk yeoji seungnam published in 1530 (25th year of King Jungjong). In 1895 (32nd year of King Gojong), the region became part of Yangju-gun, Hanseong-bu as the bu-gun administrative system began. As 13 provinces were installed in 1896, it belonged to Yangju-gun, Gyeonggi-do. Guhangukjibang haengjeongguyeong myeongchingillam, published in 1912, shows 32 myeons of Yangju-gun before Joseon was colonized by Japan, and also shows the villages of each myeon. According to the book, Guji-myeon consisted of 10 villages: Sano-ri, Injang-ri, Sutaek-ri, Baekgyo-ri, Tomak-ri, Dongchang-ri, Yimun-ri, Pyeongchon-ri, Acha-dong, and Umicheon-ri. These 10 villages composed Guji-myeon after the mid-Joseon period.
  • Japanese Colonial Era

    After Japan’s forced annexation of Joseon, Japan completely reorganized the administrative district system in 1914. The current name “Guri” first appeared at this point of time. Japan integrated the 10 villages of Guji-myeon (Sano-ri, Injang-ri, Sutaek-ri, Baekgyo-ri, Tomak-ri, Dongchang-ri, Yimun-ri, Pyeongchon-ri, Acha-dong, and Umicheon-ri), 15 villages of Manguri-myeon (Mukdong-ri, Sinhyeon-ri, Neunghu-dong, Bangchuk-ri, Jikgok-ri, Bonghwang-dong, Naedong-ri, Neungnae-dong, Yangwon-ri, Ibam-ri, Bonghyeon-ri, Sang-ri, Jung-ri, Ha-ri, and Neunggok-ri), Jangri-ri and Galmae-dong of Nowon-myeon, part of Subyeon-ri and Seokdo-ri of Mieum-myeon, part of Baeyang-dong of Jingwan-myeon, and part of Toegyewon-ri of Byeolbi-myeon, and named the region Guri-myeon after “Gu” of Guji and “Ri” of Mangu-ri.

    The reorganized Guri-myeon consisted of 12 villages: Mukdong-ri, Jungha-ri, Sangbong-ri, Sinnae-ri, Mangu-ri, Inchang-ri, Sano-ri, Gyomun-ri, Sutaek-ri, Topyeong-ri, Acheon-ri, and Galmae-ri; the myeon office was located in Gyomun-ri.

  • Republic of Korea

    The administrative district Guri-myeon, established during the Japanese colonial era, was maintained without any changes for a while. However, the myeon office which used to be located in Gyomun-ri was completely destroyed in 1950 during the Korean War, and was rebuilt in Mangu-ri in April 1952. On August 10, 1955, the new Guri-myeon office opened its doors in the site of old Guri City Hall in Inchang-dong.

    The administrative system of Guri-myeon under imperial Japan was finally reorganized on January 1, 1963 under Act No. 1172. Five villages, namely Mukdong, Jungha, Sangbong, Sinnae, and Mangu, were separated from Guri-myeon and incorporated into Seoul. Accordingly, only 7 villages, namely Inchang-ri, Sano-ri, Gyomun-ri, Sutaek-ri, Topyeong-ri, Acheon-ri, and Galmae-ri, remained in Guri-myeon, Yangju-gun. As a result, the area of Guri-myeon was reduced to the size of Guji-myeon similar to the administrative district reorganization of imperial Japan in 1914.

    On July 1, 1973, Guri-myeon was promoted to eup under Presidential Decree No. 6543. The region had remained under Yangju-gun, and on April 1, 1980, it was transferred to Namyangju-gun and separated from Yangju-gun under Act No. 3169. As Guri-eup developed every year with a growing population, it was separated from Namyangju and promoted as a city under Act No. 3798 on January 1, 1986.